Past issues

2018-2Multilinguisme : diversité des approches
(Multilingualism: diversity of approaches)
Click the book to abstract!This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal:
  • Présentation
    pp. 5-6
  • François GROSJEAN (Université de Neuchâtel)
    Ȇtre bilingue aujourd'hui
    (Being bilingual today)
    pp. 7-14

    This short article begins with why it is that people are bilingual as well as the myths that surround bilingualism. The first part deals with the bilingual person and includes the following topics: the definition of bilingualism, the Complementarity Principle, the wax and wane of languages in the bilingual, the language modes bilinguals find themselves in, interference and bilingual speech, as well as biculturalism. In the second part, dedicated to the bilingual child, the following are discussed: why it is that children become bilingual, what characterizes simultaneous and successive bilingualism, speech production in bilingual children, and the effects of bilingualism.

  • Lyanne AHUMADA-EBRATT, Barbara KÖPKE & Kleopatra MYTARA (Université de Toulouse)
    Les différentes langues du multilingue en interaction : entre influence translinguistique et attrition
    (Interactions among languages in the multilingual mind: between crosslinguistic influence and attrition)
    pp. 15-28

    This paper focuses on the interactions between the languages in the multilingual mind with reference to studies on cross-linguistic influence, dominance shift and, particularly, language attrition. We first address first language attrition by providing a brief state of the art with respect to three main questions: why does attrition arise, how does it happen and what kind of structures are mainly concerned by attrition. Psycholinguistic factors influencing interactions with the mental lexicon are specifically discussed in order to explain why some words are more vulnerable to semantic extensions than others. We then describe some main results of studies on second and foreign language attrition with focus on the role of extralinguistic and linguistic factors.

  • Henny BIJLEVELD & Françoise ESTIENNE (Université Libre de Bruxelles / Université Catholique de Louvain)
    Multilinguisme et troubles du langage : état des lieux et modes d'action auprès d'enfants de la région de Bruxelles
    (Multiligualism and language disorders: current situation and specific actions with chidren in the Brussels region)
    pp. 29-44

    The authors discuss the different sorts of multilingualism observed in the city of Brussels. They analyse the multiple ways it can be acquired; the advantages of multilingualism and some of the disadvantages one can read in literature. They propose another angle of the survey of F. Grosjean (in this issue) on the different types ofmultilingualism, and its impact on stuttering in a therapeutic setting. As some caretakers still belief that multilingualism is a probable source of stuttering, the authors analyse those misconceptions and refute them.

  • Marita HÄRMÄLÄ & Artashes BARKHANAJYAN (Finnish Education Evaluation Centre, Helsinki / National Polytechnic University of Armenia, Yerevan)
    L2 students’ language-related difficulties in subject classes
    (Les difficultés langagières des étudiants allophones en classes disciplinaires)
    pp. 45-58

    The article summarises the results of an online questionnaire launched as a part of the project Language awareness in subject classes, hosted by the European Centre for Modern languages. The aim was to explore what language-related problems the L2 students have in subject classes, in what kind of situations, and how the teachers scaffold the students accordingly. The results show that the main challenges are subject-related vocabulary, whole class discussions, oral presentations, and writing coherent texts. The teachers scaffold their students by helping them with the vocabulary, asking them to help each other, and by reformulating the instructions. The study has implications for illustrating how to define subject-specific language goals and to design materials for the purpose.

  • Sonia VANDEPITTE & Els LEFEVER (Ghent University)
    Translation as a multilingual activity in the digital era
    (La traduction en tant qu’activité multilingue à l’ère numérique )
    pp. 59-71

    Translation is an age old multilingual activity whose increasingly more important relevance is being captured by today’s multidisciplinary character of translation studies. This contribution first sketches the linguistic product-oriented approach, focusing on texts in different languages (translations, their source texts and comparable texts) and investigating highly frequent translation features such as explicitation. Secondly, recent inquiries into the translation process are described, catching glimpses of the translator’s multilingual cognitive activity and applying methods of keystroke logging and eye-tracking. A third and final kind of studies has been inspired by the digital advances of recent years, which have led to a drastic change in translators’ activities, having them integrate Computer-Aided Translation (CAT) tools into their daily multilingual translation workflow.

  • Hélène BLONDEAU (Floride, Etats-Unis)
    Pratiques langagières à Montréal et à Bruxelles : diversité et dualité linguistique
    (Language practices in Montréal and Brussels: diversity and linguistic duality)
    pp. 73-87

    This article on the effect of globalization and superdiversity on language practices in Montreal and Brussels focuses on the sociolinguistic making of two francophone metropolises both affected by language contact resulting from historical development and contemporary migrations. After an overview of the changes in the linguistic market dynamics and a presentation of language planning issues, the article provides an analysis for each metropolis. The language practices are approached from three angles: the speakers’ linguistic repertoire, the description of language use and the analysis of linguistic attitudes and representations. An emphasis is put on the contribution of speakers associated with cultural diversity to the local sociolinguistic dynamics.

  • Hervé ADAMI (Université de Lorraine)
    La domination de l’anglais est-elle inéluctable ?
    (Is the English dominance inevitable?)
    pp. 89-103

    Multilingualism always existed. All over the world at any era many different languages always co-existed. Pre-national and pre-capitalist societies roughly succeeded in maintaining a balance between these different languages. But the emergence in the XIXth century of nation- states and the XXth century economic globalization shattered this balance. Gradually countries having a single language used by the majority of the population (e.g. Britain, USA, France, Germany) extended their domination over their political allied countries and more generally all over the world by means of colonial empires. English is nowadays viewed as the one language prevailing. Hopefully escaping such a supremacy of English is possible: languages are no natural forces, but tools designed to be used by humans able to master them.