Hélène BLONDEAU (Floride, Etats-Unis)No salvation outside THE norm ? The Montreal study of variations in hypothetical si-clauses2012, Vol. XVII-1, pp. 55-66
Through the panel study of twelve Montrealers from 1971 to 1995, this article examines the variation between the conditional and the imperfect morphology in hypothetical si-clauses. The two variants, well in place in the spoken French implicit norms system, are in opposition when given values in the normative debate. The analysis indicates the influence of the distance and the event potentiality. Due to vacillations in usage frequency according to the year, the study cannot confirm the hypothesis of a change in favor of the conditional morphology. This case study documents the individual variation across the lifespan and its connection to community change.
Julien EYCHENNE (Groningue, Pays-Bas)The Phonology of Contemporary French program: results and perspective2012, Vol. XVII-1, pp. 7-24
This paper offers an overview of the work that has been done within the Phonologie du français contemporain : usages, variétés, structure (PFC) research programme. We first critically assess the relation between phonological research and data. We then move on to describe PFC's methodology and the coding schemes that have been devised for the analysis of schwa and liaison. We finish off by showing how the PFC programme makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the phonology of French, by widening the scope and breadth of empirical descriptions and by offering new insights into theoretical problems such as the analysis of liaison or the role of usage frequency in grammar.
Françoise GADET (Paris Ouest)A large corpus of spoken French : CIEL-F. Epistemological choices and empirical outcome2012, Vol. XVII-1, pp. 39-54
This article presents the structure of the Corpus International Ecologique de la Langue Française, an extensive corpus of spoken French that will soon be available on the Internet, from both an epistemological and empirical perspective. Explanations are given with regard to the ideas that guided the data collection (ecological approach, comparability of the different areas of the Francophonie and communication situations) and to the choices made ("communicative spaces" and "activity types") with a view to relevant analyses in various research fields (variation, interaction, multimodality, French in contact, oral syntax) and an attempt is made to fill existing gaps in the current corpus. The article further addresses the issue of building up a network of experts, problems that had to be solved during fieldwork in the different areas and questions concerning standardisation, archiving and publication of the collected data (audio and video recordings, transcriptions, metadata), whereupon several examples are presented for comparative analyses.
Stéphanie LOPEZ (Toulouse 2-Le Mirail / CNRS)An analysis of communication between pilots and air traffic control : between norms and realities of linguistic usage2014, Vol. XIX-1, pp. 87-101
The domain of air traffic control is the perfect example for the analysis of a linguistic norm. In this field, phraseology is a specialised language created to cover the most common situations encountered in air navigation in order to secure and optimise radiotelephony communications. When phraseology proves inadequate, a more natural form of language, called plain language, is required: it was recently introduced in the field and is a difficult notion to implement. A comparative analysis between a reference corpus and a real-communication corpus allows the description and categorisation of different types of variations used on the radio frequency as well as a discussion on the notions of norm and usage in the field of air traffic control.