Louis-Jean BOË (Grenoble)La matérialité des structures sonores du langage
(The material aspect of sound structures in language)1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 41-54
Do the major tendencies of phonological systems of languages depend on constraints of production and perception ? This problem has been studied in the framework of "substance oriented" linguistics, which was introduced simultaneously by Lindblom and Stevens in 1972. Various universal tendencies of phonological systems that might be explained by the characteristics of the sound structures and could be looked upon from an ontogenetical perspective, will be presented and discussed here. The characteristics and the predictability of vocalic and syllabic systems seem to be eminently suited for the study of this question on the basis of research carried out at the ICP.
Louis-Jean BOË (Grenoble)La croissance de l'instrument vocal : contrôle, modélisation, potentialités acoustiques et conséquences perceptives
(Growth of the vocal instrument: control, modelisation, acoustic potential and their perceptive consequences)2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 59-80
In order to accurately follow the growth of the vocal tract and the speech articulators and to infer their motor control and acoustic potentialities, it is essential to have anatomic and physiologic data throughout ontogenesis, from gestation to adulthood. The morphogenesis of the vocal tract, which involves the bony structures, their development, and cranio-facial growth during ontogenesis, is far from linear. The new data provided by genetics help interpreting the process of bony growth and thus of vocal tract reshaping from fetus to adult. To predict the consequences of vocal tract growth on the first speech productions (proto-vocalic and proto-consonantal articulations, babbling), anthropomorphic articulatory models are developed based on articulatory data. The articulatory models can generate realistic acoustic stimuli, which enable the testing of hypotheses about adult and newborn perceptuo-motor processes. These articulatory models can provide phylogenetical cues to the debate around the emergence of speech. The study of vocal tract growth therefore constitutes a key experimental paradigm for speech research.
Louis-Jean BOË (Grenoble)La communication parlée : développements récents de la recherche
(Research in oral communication: recent developments)2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 5-7
Geneviève CAELEN-HAUMONT (CNRS-Grenoble)Lexique, indices mélodiques et auto-interprétation
(Lexicon, melodic indices and auto-interpretation)1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 25-40
This article aims to investigate experimentally the links between prosody and the various domains of linguistics (syntax, semantics, pragmatics). Since the function of prosody is to convey the interpretation of the meaning the speaker wants to give to his utterance, the method that is proposed is to define linguistic models that can be quantified in such a way as to both yield an interpretive strategy of the linguistic contents and to predict a melodic structuring of the lexical framework. Experimental evidence shows links between on the one hand constraints related to the text and the context, and on the other the distribution of models and melodical indices, and allows us to define prosody and more in particular melody, as a subjective locus, where whatever belongs to the linguistic realm enters the realm of pragmatics.
Susanne FUCHS (Berlin, Allemagne)Understanding speech production: The PILIOS approach2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 35-44
Understanding and modeling biological and physical mechanisms underlying speech production helps understanding speech motor control and its link to linguistic structure. Two of our recent studies are presented to illustrate this methodological idea. In the first study a realistic biomechanical tongue model is used to explore comprehensively the possible tongue shapes in the mid-sagittal plane. It is shown that the main directions of the tongue deformation observed in different languages are not related to any specific control, but rather to biomechanical and anatomical facts. The second study addresses the ‘trough effect’ observed in tongue shapes for bilabial consonants in VCV sequences. It is suggested that the combined analysis of kinematic and electromyographic data allows questioning previous interpretations of the trough effect with respect to speech motor control.
Hélène LŒVENBRUCK (Grenoble)From gestural pointing to vocal pointing in the brain2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 23-33
Deixis, or pointing, is the ability to draw the viewer/listener’s attention to an object, a person, a direction or an event. Pointing is involved at different stages of human communication development, in multiple modalities: first with the eyes, then with the finger, then with intonation and finally with syntax. It is ubiquitous and probably universal in human interactions. The role of index-finger pointing in language acquisition suggests that it may be a precursor of vocal pointing or that vocal pointing may be grounded in the same cerebral network as gestural pointing.
Kirk MCELHEARN (CNRS)Writing Conversation. An Analysis of Speech Events in E-mail Mailing Lists2000, Vol. V-1, pp. 71-88
E-mail is a form of communication whose use is increasing exponentially as the Internet, and other means of computer-mediated communication (CMC), become more accessible to the general public. Aside from its use in direct interpersonal communication, just as letters, memos, and faxes are used, it is also used for communication among groups that share common interests or goals, through mailing lists. The latter give people the opportunity to discuss these subjects using a form of discourse that is relatively new. While this type of CMC is a form of written communication, there are many aspects of mailing list discourse that are similar to those used in spoken discourse. In this paper, I will discuss how mailing lists function, and how the type of mailing list can influence the type of discourse that is used on the list.
Serge PINTO (Aix-Marseille)Troubles du contrôle moteur de la parole : contribution de l'étude des dysarthries et dysphonies à la compréhension de la parole normale
(Disorders in motor control of speech: a contribution to the study of dysarthrias and dysphonias in normal speech comprehension)2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 45-57
If dysphonia is clearly identified as a phonation disorder, dysarthria is often wrongly restricted to an arthric impairment. Actually, dysarthria is a motor speech disorder, whose origin is a lesion of the central or peripheral nervous system; it involves various possible deteriorations during the motor execution of speech, which influence respiratory, phonatory, resonatory, articulatory, and prosodic aspects of speech production. The distinction between dysphonia and dysarthria based on which anatomical level is lesioned does not accurately explain the duality between these terms; on the other hand, a distinction rather based on the neurological origin of the disorder would seem more adapted to describe as precisely as possible the multiple dysfunctions of voice and speech. In fact, the study of dysarthric and dysphonic speech for the better understanding of normal speech represents an original approach, which considers speech disorder as a model of its own for speech investigation.
Jean-Luc SCHWARTZ (Grenoble)The common language of speech perception and action: a neurocognitive perspective2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 9-22
How do listeners extract phonetic information from the speech signal? More than 50 years after the appearance of the motor theory of speech perception, recent neurophysiological discoveries challenge the view that speech perception relies on purely auditory mechanisms and suggest that the motor system might also be crucial for speech comprehension. The aim of the present chapter is to review these findings in an attempt to define what could be the “common language of perception and action”.
Brigitte ZELLNER (Lausanne, Suisse)Structures temporelles et structures prosodiques en français lu
(Temporal and prosodic structures in French reading)1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 7-23
Although the prosodic component has been integrated in speech synthesis systems for many years, one temporal dimension, namely fluency of speech, has much less been considered. Fluent speech is characterized by easy verbal production, smooth onsets and transitions, and an adequate speech rate. It will be argued that for French, the current lack of fluency in speech synthesis can be explained by the fact that temporal structuring is inadequate for achieving this, as this structure is considered to be congruent with the accent structure. In this article a new approach of temporal organisation will be presented.