Gérard BAILLY (Grenoble)Boucles de perception-action et interaction face-à-face
(Perception-action loops and face-to-face interaction)2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 121-131
This article investigates a blossoming research field: face-to-face communication. The performance and the robustness of the technological components that are necessary to the implementation of face-to-face interaction systems between a human being and a conversational agent – vocal technologies, computer vision, image synthesis, dialogue comprehension and generation, etc. – have now come to maturity. We draw a sketch for a research program centred on the modelling of the many perception-action loops that are involved in the interaction processing and on the dynamic settings of these loops by the many comprehension levels concerning the scene in which human beings, robots and animated conversational agents will inevitably be immersed.
Giolo FELE (Trente, Italie)La communication dans l'urgence. Les appels au secours téléphoniques
(Communication in emergency phone calls)2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 33-51
The paper examines the verbal communication during an emergency, and in particular telephone interaction between the person who calls for help and the operators working in a help centre. Literature in this field (most of it dealing with cases in the USA) inspired by the principles of conversation analysis is reviewed. The paper presents the overall organization of the emergency calls and describes each phase of them. A comparison with ordinary telephone calls allows us to bring into light two particular aspects of the emergency telephone calls, their specialization and the compression of the opening sequence. As a final point it is shown how a misalignment between the parties concerned and a consequent interactional asynchrony can produce serious communication troubles together with real consequences for the involved persons.
Anne-Laure FOUCHER (Clermont-Ferrand)Clavardage, forum et macro-tâche pour l'apprentissage du FLE : quelle(s) articulation(s) possible(s) pour quels apports ?
(Chats, face-to-face activities and macro-tasks in learning French as FL : the contribution of each of these means)2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 155-172
Ce texte est une contribution à la discussion des apports de la Communication Médiatisée par Ordinateur (CMO) à l'apprentissage de la langue étrangère. Nous appuyant sur la mise en place d'un dispositif mixte d'apprentissage du Français Langue Etrangère (FLE) en direction d'apprenants chypriotes de niveau A2, nous analysons plus particulièrement les potentialités de l'articulation pédagogique du présentiel, des clavardages et des forums pour la réalisation d'une macro-tâche écrite en langue étrangère. A partir des données issues des résultats de questionnaires administrés aux apprenants et aux tuteurs et de leurs interactions synchrones et asynchrones, nous détaillons comment l'accompagnement « mixte » est ressenti et mis en actes langagiers par les deux parties, tant sur le plan de la conduite de la macro-tâche que sur le plan des outils utilisés.
Paul Ten HAVE (Amsterdam, Pays-Bas)On the interactive constitution of medical encounters2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 85-98
The paper offers a concise introduction to the conversation-analytic study of medical encounters. The basic perspective is that medical personnel and patients constitute the encounter together as being a medical one. The paper discusses some of the major findings from the CA literature in this area, detailing some generic resources and their local applications as used by the parties involved. Fragments from one consultation, recorded in the Netherlands in the late 1970s, are quoted for illustrative purposes.
Catherine KERBRAT-ORECCHIONI (Lyon 2)L'oral dans l'interaction : une liberté surveillée
(Oral language in interaction: restricted freedom)1999, Vol. IV-2, pp. 41-55
In this article, the author begins by mentioning three basic properties of oral discourse (two of them contrasting drastically oral discourse with written discourse) : 1. usally, it is fresh talk, 2. which is built collectively, 3. and which is governed by different kinds of rules. Then she shows that the application of these rules gives rise to negotiations between participants, giving some examples of such negociation mechanisms (concerning the negotiation of the words that are exchanged, the script of the interaction, and the interpersonal relationship). As a conclusion, she emphasizes the necessity of studying oral discourse as an interactive achievement.
Lorenza MONDADA (Bâle, Suisse)Interactions en situations professionnelles et institutionnelles : de l'analyse détaillée aux retombées pratiques
(Interaction in the context of work: thorough analysis and practical effect)2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 5-16
Christian OLLIVIER (La Réunion)Ecriture collaborative en ligne : une approche interactionnelle de la production écrite pour des apprenants acteurs sociaux et motivés
(Collaborative Writing Online : An Interactional Approach to Written Production for Active and Motivated Social Learners)2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 121-137
The communication and collaboration tools that are available on the web 2.0 offer new opportunities for teaching and learning languages. We present here the results of two similar experiments on collaborative writing for the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. We show that working with Wikipedia initiates a real collaborative process between the students, the Wikipedian Community and the teacher and that this kind of task - which includes real social interactions - is a motivating factor for the learners. Based on these results we promote the implementation of real life tasks and of an "interactional approach".
Claire SAILLARD (Paris 7)Les acteurs plurilingues au travail : une communauté linguistique ?
(Multilingual actors at work: a linguistic community?)2000, Vol. V-1, pp. 15-24
This paper aims to reexamine the sociolinguistic concept of "linguistic community", taking multilingual work situations into account, in order to determine whether such a sociolinguistic concept can be defined without reference to the concrete situations where interactions are realized. The study shows that the norms governing linguistic uses and interpretations in a given multilingual work setting do not necessarily correspond to the norms that prevail in the multilingual society at large. The work setting should thus be defined as a socialization setting, where linguistic norms are negotiated in a dynamic process.
Reinhold SCHMITT (Institut für Deutsche Sprache, Mannheim,)Interaction in work meetings2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 69-84
The contribution starts with a short sketch of the global goals of Conversation Analysis (CA). After this, it describes the historical development of core aspects of inquiry, and offers a short overview of studies on meetings that have been analyzed from a CA perspective. With reference to a study on "management styles", it is shown how sequential analysis can be used, and what kind of analytical findings it produces. Based on this study, the necessity arises out to combine CA and ethnography in attempting to conceptualize analytical findings produced by sequential analysis. In conclusion, the contribution reflects how analytical findings derived from CA studies can serve as feedback to professionals whose interactive work has been studied.
Paul SEEDHOUSE (Newcastle upon Tyne, Grande-Bretagne)Interaction in Second Language Classrooms2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 111-122
Interest in Conversation Analysis (CA) and its possible applications in the fields of language learning and language teaching has grown considerably over the last five years. The article therefore attempts to synthesise the current state of the research and identify the issues and problems that have arisen and those areas which are suitable for further research. This article focuses on language classroom interaction and on teaching languages for specific purposes. It also discusses the relationship between CA and Applied Linguistics and examines the complex issue of what CA can contribute to the study of 'learning'. The issues are illustrated by an example of a CA analysis of language learning processes. The article concludes by considering possible future directions for research.
Erik VINKHUYZEN (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, États-U)Security, efficiency, and customer service in calls to a financial services organization2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 53-68
This study compares the interactional consequences of two different openings in calls to a financial services organization: the traditional opening that offers service (e.g., "How may I help you") and the power call opening that immediately launches a security check (e.g., "May I have your social security number please"). We present an analysis that explains why a higher percentage of customers fail the security check when service representatives use the powercall. Our study finds that often the strict security check is not necessary given the customer's request. Also, our analysis shows how the powercall has detrimental effect on customer service when customers are denied service before they have been given an opportunity to say why they called. Moreover, the efficiency argument for using the powercall is undermined by customer's design of their initial requests as a gloss.