• Galina BOUBNOVA (Moscou, Russie)
    L'Olympiade fédérale de français en Russie : un terrain d'expérimentation et de réflexion pédagogique
    (The Federal Olympiad for French in Russia: a field for pedagogical reflection and experiment)
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 75-88

    An overview of FLE (French as a foreign language) student assessment in Russia reveals the following state of affairs. On the one hand, diplomas DELF-DALF (Diploma in French Language Studies - Diploma in Advanced French Language Studies) and TCF (Test of Knowledge of French) are not officially recognized in Russia. On the other hand, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation proposes two types of certification: the Unified State Examination and the All-Russian Olympiad. The tasks of the latter were conceived in a way to become the interlink between the French language curricula and performance assessment criteria used in Russia and those devised for French and European tests and examinations. In other words, the goal is to create mark schemes and assessment criteria which would correspond to those of DALF-DELF and would conform to the recommendations of the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). The present article deals with the All-Russian Olympiad in French (the annual contest organized by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation) from the methodological point of view as inviting pedagogical reflection and experiment, the purpose being to introduce assessment procedures which would fit into the common assessment system already adopted in Europe.

  • Jean-Marie DE KETELE (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)
    L’évaluation de la production écrite
    (The evaluation of writing)
    2013, Vol. XVIII-1, pp. 59-74

    The term “evaluating written language” hides underlying polysemic concepts that this article aims at clarifying from the start. Therefore both the certifying and the formative evaluation of written production will be addressed. The former is doubly institutional: its aim is to give an orientation and a planification of learning writing skills, and also constitutes the basis of the final decision of success or failure. The latter, widely claimed but less widely applied, aims to improve the  learning of the skill during the learning, and is based on diagnostic concepts, and, in coherence with those, on the setting up of permanent actions allowing learners to progress in their learning. These aspects will be illustrated by concrete examples.

  • Jean-Marie DE KETELE (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)
    Ne pas se tromper d'évaluation
    (Choosing the right evaluation method)
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 25-37

    This article starts from the curious observation that, in a world where complex trades become increasingly professionalized, assessments in schools come generally down to awarding marks. If done professionally, the evaluator should before all other things answer questions about the types of functions that the evaluation has to fulfill and the procedures to follow. More specifically, the article addresses two important aspects of professionalization : evaluation of language competencies and the reinforcement of the functions of orientation and regulation.

  • Jean ECALLE (Lyon 2)
    L'évaluation de la lecture et des compétences associées
    (Assessment of reading and related skills)
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 105-120

    Reading assessment should be completed with cognitive skills (memory and rapid automatized naming) and linguistic skills (particularly phonological domain) related to reading and learning to read. This review aims to present the importance of assessing in general and the two aspects of reading assessment in terms of screening and diagnosis. For screening and more precisely to detect children at-risk of failure in learning to read, tests of language development and phonological skills are presented. For a diagnosis in reading, we distinguish pencil-paper tests and computer-based tests. For a complete diagnosis, tests in written word recognition and in reading comprehension are presented with their limits. We conclude that assessment should be closely related to interventions as prevention or remediation.

  • Sébastien GEORGES (Centre international d’études pédagogiques, Sèvres)
    Evaluer la production orale au travers d’une démarche scientifique
    (Evaluate oral production by means of a scientific proocedure)
    2013, Vol. XVIII-1, pp. 47-58

    In this paper we propose a methodology for designing and administering a test of speaking in conditions that are of the highest importance for the testees. With examples of high stake assessments where speaking is not the only ability measured, we will demonstrate how a rigorous and scientific approach offers advantages to the test in terms of validity, reliability, sensitivity and equity. We will also examine how the adepts of this approach are an appropriate answer to the initial request and to the expectation of the final users. The benefits for the stakeholders will also reviewed.

  • François-Marie GERARD (BIEF, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)
    L’évaluation au service de la régulation des apprentissages : enjeux, nécessités et difficultés
    (Evaluation as a tool for regulating learning : challenges, necessities and difficulties)
    2013, Vol. XVIII-1, pp. 75-92

    School assessment is a systematic procedure which allows enhancing the value of acquired learning as well as giving it meaning.The first challenge is to distinguish between certification evaluation, which aims at probing success in learning, and formative evaluation. This latter is more oriented to improving the acquired learning in itself. This “assessment for learning” can take different forms, depending on the standpoints of the various teachers. A second challenge concerns grasping the evaluation objects: on the one side the knowledge and know-how, and on the other side, the competences needed for their mobilization in order to solve a complex situation.

  • Antony John KUNNAN (Los Angeles, Etats-Unis)
    Statistical analyses for test fairness
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 39-48

    Test fairness in language assessment has now been discussed by researchers for over a decade but statistical methods that can be used to analyze test fairness qualities have not been clearly articulated. In this article, I describe briefly my test fairness framework, the principles behind it and the test qualities that encompass test fairness. I then describe statistical analyses that can be used to analyze tests and testing practice such as factor analysis, structural equation modeling and differential item functioning.

  • Tim MCNAMARA (Melbourne, Australie)
    The use of language tests in the service of policy: issues of validity
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 7-23

    This paper considers the role of language tests as instruments of policy and contemporary society and the issues for validity that this raises. It contrasts approaches which focus solely on the fairness of tests with a broader view of validity which addresses issues of justice in the uses of tests. It illustrates its argument with reference to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and tests used in workplace accreditation such as language tests for pilots and air traffic controllers and for health professionals.

  • Jean-Philippe RIVIÈRE (IUFM de Bretagne)
    Les jeunes Français face à la lecture : nouvelles pistes méthodologiques pour l'évaluation massive des performances cognitives
    (Reading skills of French youngsters: new ways of large-scale assessing of cognitive performance)
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 121-144

    Every year, reading performance of about 700.000 young people is assessed in the framework of a day (JAPD, Journée d'Appel de Préparation à la Défense) organised by the French Ministry of Defense. These tests changed recently due to some constraints of test administration and the taking into account of the results of the previous version of the test. Based on the results collected over the years 2004-2008, this paper presents the methodological design of this large span evaluation of reading. This study is an occasion to moderate the binary oppositions between literate and illiterate, and to show that various more or less efficient ways of reading, characterize this activity. For some young people, the switch from schooling to active professional life implies a new relation with written language. The school, which is the main location of reading and writing solicitation, will be replaced by economical activities. For some young people, the relation with writing will be definitively distended.

  • Jacques TARDIF (Faculté d’éducation, Université de Sherbrooke)
    De la nature des compétences transversales jusqu’à leur évaluation : une course à obstacles, souvent infranchissables
    (On the nature of transversal competencies until their evaluation : a race with sometimes impossible obstacles)
    2013, Vol. XVIII-1, pp. 29-45

    Transversal competences define and target knowledge that every human being should develop in school in order to understand the complexity of situations in normal life and act intelligently. However, without anchoring them in concrete situations, the course of development of these competences and their assessment seem to stay rather vague. After defining the concept of competence and sketching the guidelines of competence assessment, the article illustrates the difficulty of influencing critical learning inherent in transversal competence and the necessity of evaluating it. The last part of the article makes suggestions for professionalisation of this activity.

  • Sylviane VALDOIS (Grenoble 2)
    Evaluation des difficultés d'apprentissage de la lecture
    (Assessing difficulties in the acquisition of reading)
    2010, Vol. XV-1, pp. 89-103

    Improvement of knowledge about the cognitive mechanisms involved in skilled reading and reading acquisition contributed to the development of new tools for the assessment of reading disability. A first step of the assessment focuses on the efficacy of the global and analytic reading procedures. Evidence for disharmonious development of these procedures then requires investigating the cognitive mechanisms involved in their establishment. Phonological processing skills are then typically assessed because of their well-known impact on reading acquisition. Recent findings have shown that the integrity of another cognitive mechanism, the visual attention span, was also required for the normal development of the reading system.