Bisher erschienene Hefte

2002-1Lexique : recherches actuelles
(Lexicon: current research)
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  • Agnès TUTIN & Francis GROSSMANN (Grenoble 3 / Université Grenoble-Alpes)
    Collocations régulières et irrégulières : esquisse de typologie du phénomène collocatif
    (Regular and irregular collocations. Towards a typology of the collocation phenomenon)
    pp. 7-25

    Collocations are an essential phenomenon in lexical combinatorics but often are fuzzily defined. In this paper, we aim at defining clearly this concept and propose parameters accounting for the degree of idiomaticity. We present then some syntactic characteristics and some semantic processes yielding colourful collocations. We finally distinguish collocations from close concepts.

  • Piek VOSSEN (Amsterdam, Pays-Bas)
    WordNet, EuroWordNet and Global WordNet
    pp. 27-38

    In this article we aim to present the architecture of the database WordNet, organised in order to represent conceptual relations, and set up initially for the English language, as well as its extensions made under the name of EuroWordNet for seven other European languages.

  • Patrick SAINT-DIZIER (CNRS-Toulouse)
    Quelques défis et éléments de méthode pour la construction de ressources lexicales sémantiques
    (Challenges and methods in building lexical semantic tools)
    pp. 39-51

    This paper deals with the construction of lexical semantic resources for predicates, verbs and prepositions. We first raise questions about the theoretical perspectives and the methods to be applied. Next, we describe our resources: alternations, thematic grids and lexical conceptual structure representations. We conclude by some indications on the use of these resources in applications.

  • Ulrich HEID (Stuttgart, Allemagne)
    La mise à jour semi-automatique de dictionnaires : une application de l'acquisition lexicale et de la métalexicographie
    (Semi-automatic updating of dictionaries)
    pp. 53-66

    Many more dictionaries are being updated than are written from scratch. Taylor-made computational linguistic support for lexicographers should thus not only provide corpus-derived data, but, along with this, a comparison with the information given in the targeted dictionary. We are developing a system for German, which provides this kind of comparison, for a set a macro- and microstructural data. We report about the main lexicographic and computational aspects of the approach.

  • Odile BAGOU & Ulrich H. FRAUENFELDER (Genève, Suisse)
    Alignement lexical et segmentation de la parole
    (Lexical alignment and segmentation in speech recognition)
    pp. 67-82

    How do listeners segment the continuous speech input into words? This paper addresses this important question by reviewing current views of lexical segmentation. After providing some background to the more general problem of spoken word recognition, we examine the different cues - including phonetic, phonological, prosodic, and lexical cues - that have been shown to play a role in speech segmentation. We then analyze how these cues are used to locate alignment points in the continuous speech signal. These points serve to define what parts of the signal are matched with which representations in the mental lexicon. Several solutions to the alignment problem are discussed in light of existing experimental evidence.

  • Elsa SPINELLI, Anne CUTLER & James M. MCQUEEN (Nimègue, Pays-Bas)
    Resolution of liaison for lexical access in French
    pp. 83-96

    Spoken word recognition involves automatic activation of lexical candidates compatible with the perceived input. In running speech, words abut one another without intervening gaps, and syllable boundaries can mismatch with word boundaries. For instance, liaison in 'petit agneau' creates a syllable beginning with a consonant although 'agneau' begins with a vowel. In two cross-modal priming experiments we investigate how French listeners recognise words in liaison environments. These results suggest that the resolution of liaison in part depends on acoustic cues which distinguish liaison from non-liaison consonants, and in part on the availability of lexical support for a liaison interpretation.

  • Jean-François SABLAYROLLES (Paris 7)
    Fondements théoriques des difficultés pratiques du traitement des néologismes
    (Theoretical issues and practical difficulties in processing neologisms)
    pp. 97-111

    The difficulties that arise with collecting neologisms, individually or collectively, manually or automatically, come from the diversity of the terms and the theoretical problems concerning their statute. Excluding a term from a corpus is a delicate question. One risks to leave out a good deal of formal neologisms, and a fortiori, other types of neologisms such as those of a semantic or syntactic character, and those created by lexical combinations or by deviation. Observed variations of what people see as neologisms are not completely random: they are due partly to the people themselves, partly to lexical matrices. One can try to build a scale of neologicity. What is left to be done, is the social acceptation of the neologism, its life span (from when to when?), not considering its unforeseen trajectories.

  • Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)
    Prolégomènes à une néologie créole
    (Towards a creole neology)
    pp. 113-121
  • Corpus. Méthodologie et applications linguistiques, de M. Bilger (éd.)
    par L. Clément
    pp. 123-124
  • Linguistique sur corpus ? Études et réflexions, de M. Bilger (éd.)
    par L. Clément
    pp. 123-124
  • Entre signe et concept. Eléments de terminologie générale, de L. Depecker
    par G. Petit
    pp. 124-125
  • Le conditionnel en français. Une approche polyphonique, de P. Haillet
    par A. Delaveau
    pp. 126-128
  • L'invention de la langue. Le choix des mots nouveaux, de L. Depecker
    par G. Petit
    pp. 126